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Vascular plant

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**Characteristics of Vascular Plants:**
– Vascular plants have vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) for resource distribution.
– Evolution of vascular tissue allows vascular plants to grow larger.
– The principal generation in vascular plants is the sporophyte.
– They possess true roots, leaves, and stems.
– Tracheophyta is a botanical division with diploid phase and xylem/phloem.

**Phylogeny and Evolution of Vascular Plants:**
– Proposed phylogeny distinguishes rhyniophytes from eutracheophytes.
– Molecular studies support the phylogeny of vascular plants.
– Fossils may influence conclusions about the monophyly of ferns.
– Alternative phylogeny exists for pre-euphyllophyte plants.
– Xylem and phloem transport water and nutrients.

**Transport Mechanisms in Vascular Plants:**
– Water movement occurs mainly through transpiration.
Transpiration pull in xylem vessels is due to water surface tension.
Transpiration aids in nutrient absorption.
– Plants can regulate transpiration for water loss and nutrient absorption balance.
Root cells absorb water passively via osmosis.

**Conduction in Vascular Plants:**
– Xylem is responsible for water conduction.
– Phloem conducts sugars, while xylem transports water and nutrients.
– Conduction happens from source to sink for each nutrient.
– Sugars produced in leaves are transported to growing shoots and roots.
– Minerals absorbed in roots are transported to shoots for growth.

**Related Concepts and Terminology:**
Fern allies, bryophytes, and non-vascular plants are related plant groups.
– References include studies on vascular plant evolution and phylogeny.
– External links discuss higher plants or vascular plants classification.
– Various studies and books delve into plant physiology and evolutionary studies related to vascular plants.

Vascular plant (Wikipedia)

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum 'duct'), also called tracheophytes (/trəˈk.əˌfts/) or collectively tracheophyta (/trəˈk.əftə/; from Ancient Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία (trakheîa artēría) 'windpipe', and φυτά (phutá) 'plants'), form a large group of land plants (c. 300,000 accepted known species) that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers), and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta, Tracheobionta and Equisetopsida sensu lato. Some early land plants (the rhyniophytes) had less developed vascular tissue; the term eutracheophyte has been used for all other vascular plants, including all living ones.

Vascular plant
Temporal range: Silurian–Present, 425–0 Ma
Common lady-fern, a non-seed-bearing plant
Lemon basil, a seed-bearing plant
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Embryophytes
Clade: Polysporangiophytes
Clade: Tracheophytes
Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
† Extinct

Historically, vascular plants were known as "higher plants", as it was believed that they were further evolved than other plants due to being more complex organisms. However, this is an antiquated remnant of the obsolete scala naturae, and the term is generally considered to be unscientific.

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