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Plant physiology

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**Group 1: Plant Physiology Concepts**

– Study of phytochemistry within plant physiology
– Biological and chemical processes of individual plant cells
– Interactions between cells, tissues, and organs within a plant
– Ways plants control or regulate internal functions
Plant response to environmental conditions and their variation
– Plants use chemical compounds to cope with their environment
– Pigments are used by plants to absorb or detect light
Plant products may be used for the manufacture of rubber or biofuel
– Plants produce compounds with pharmacological activity
– Drug companies research plant compounds for potential medicinal benefits
– Plants require macronutrients like nitrogen and carbon to survive
– Macronutrients are necessary in large quantities
– Micronutrients are required in trace amounts
– Micronutrients are usually absorbed as ions dissolved in water
– Some plants acquire micronutrients from captured prey
– Plants produce hormones and growth regulators
– Compounds like phytochrome respond to light
– Hormones regulate plant growth and development
– Hormones influence processes from flowering to seed development
– Key plant hormones include abscissic acid, auxins, ethylene, gibberellins, and cytokinins
Light plays a role in plant structural development
– Photomorphogenesis depends on specialized photoreceptors
– Plants use phytochrome, cryptochrome, UV-B receptor, and protochlorophyllide
– Phytochrome regulates flowering time and other plant responses
– Plants respond to directional stimuli through tropisms and non-directional stimuli through nastic movements
– Tropisms result from differential cell growth, causing bending towards stimuli like light (phototropism) or gravity (geotropism)
– Nastic movements result from cell growth or changes in turgor pressure, leading to rapid movements like thigmonasty in Venus flytrap
– Tropisms and nastic movements are regulated by plant hormones and environmental factors
– Phytopathology studies diseases in plants caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and physical invasion
– Plants have unique defense mechanisms like shedding infected parts and using abscission to control disease spread
Plant pathogens spread through spores or animal carriers, unlike direct contact in animals

**Group 2: Plant Pigments**

Plant pigments include porphyrins, carotenoids, and anthocyanins
– Pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light
Chlorophyll is the primary pigment in plants
Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue wavelengths of light
– Carotenoids function as accessory pigments in plants
– Carotenoids include carotene, lutein, and lycopene
– Act as antioxidants and promote healthy eyesight
– Found in carrots, fruits, and vegetables
– Responsible for the color of tomatoes
– Provide various health benefits
– Anthocyanins are water-soluble flavonoid pigments
– Provide color in various plant tissues
– Most visible in flower petals
– Found in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits
– Can make up a significant portion of tissue weight
– Betalains are red or yellow pigments found in plants
– Synthesized from tyrosine
– Found only in Caryophyllales plants
– Responsible for the red color of beets
– Used commercially as food-coloring agents

**Group 3: Plant Physiology Applications**

Plant physiology plays a crucial role in food production, agriculture, and horticulture
– Topics studied include climatic requirements, fruit development, nutrition, and post-harvest storage
– Crop physiology focuses on optimizing food production through planting density and plant interactions
– Understanding plant physiology enhances crop yields, food quality, and secondary product production
– Applications of plant physiology in agriculture contribute to sustainable food production and economic growth

**Group 4: Historical Development in Plant Physiology**

– Early plant physiology experiments date back to the 17th century, with discoveries on plant growth and nutrition
– Stephen Hales is known as the Father of Plant Physiology for his experiments in the 18th century
– Julius von Sachs unified plant physiology as a discipline in the 19th century
– Hydroponics, growing plants in water without soil, became a standard technique in plant research and agriculture
– Historical advancements laid the foundation for modern plant physiology research and applications

**Group 5: Plant Pain Perception**

– Plants lack pain receptors, nerves, and a brain
– Uprooting or trimming plants is not perceived as pain
– Anesthetics do not affect plants due to lack of consciousness

Plant physiology (Wikipedia)

Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.

A germination rate experiment

Plant physiologists study fundamental processes of plants, such as photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, plant hormone functions, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, environmental stress physiology, seed germination, dormancy and stomata function and transpiration. Plant physiology interacts with the fields of plant morphology (structure of plants), plant ecology (interactions with the environment), phytochemistry (biochemistry of plants), cell biology, genetics, biophysics and molecular biology.

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