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Animal welfare

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**Historical Development and Principles of Animal Welfare:**
– Animal protection laws in ancient India and Mongolia
– Early legislation in Western countries like Ireland and Massachusetts
– Humphrey Primatt’s advocacy for animal welfare in 1776
– Establishment of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 1824

**Legislation and Regulation of Animal Welfare:**
– UK Cruelty to Animals Act of 1835
– US Animal Welfare Act of 1966
– India’s Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act of 1960
– Introduction of the Five Freedoms in the UK
– Consolidation of animal welfare laws in the UK through the Animal Welfare Act 2006

**Animal Welfare Science and Concerns:**
– Research on farm animal welfare in Ireland
– Issues in laboratories, zoos, and factory farming
– Advocacy for improved conditions for farm animals
– Addressing natural behaviors and stocking densities in factory farming
– Focus on the well-being of animals in various contexts

**Debate on Animal Rights and Welfare:**
– Range of views on animal welfare and rights
– Relationship between animal welfare and animal rights
– Continued debate on animal consciousness in nonhuman animals
– Consideration of animal welfare as a step towards animal rights
– Potential for increased exploitation with better animal welfare

**Global Efforts and Recognition of Animal Welfare:**
– Advocacy for a Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare at the UN
– Recognition of animals as sentient beings by organizations like World Animal Protection
– Inclusion of animal welfare in the UN Global Sustainable Development Report
– International attention to animal welfare in various settings
– Emphasis on considering animal welfare in social development

Animal welfare (Wikipedia)

Animal welfare is the well-being of non-human animals. Formal standards of animal welfare vary between contexts, but are debated mostly by animal welfare groups, legislators, and academics. Animal welfare science uses measures such as longevity, disease, immunosuppression, behavior, physiology, and reproduction, although there is debate about which of these best indicate animal welfare.

Animal welfare
A four-week-old puppy, found alongside a road after flooding in West Virginia, United States, is fed at an Emergency Animal Rescue Service shelter in the Twin Falls State Park.

Respect for animal welfare is often based on the belief that nonhuman animals are sentient and that consideration should be given to their well-being or suffering, especially when they are under the care of humans. These concerns can include how animals are slaughtered for food, how they are used in scientific research, how they are kept (as pets, in zoos, farms, circuses, etc.), and how human activities affect the welfare and survival of wild species.

There are two forms of criticism of the concept of animal welfare, coming from diametrically opposite positions. One view, held by some thinkers in history, holds that humans have no duties of any kind to animals. The other view is based on the animal rights position that animals should not be regarded as property and any use of animals by humans is unacceptable. Accordingly, some animal rights proponents argue that the perception of better animal welfare facilitates continued and increased exploitation of animals. Some authorities therefore treat animal welfare and animal rights as two opposing positions.[page needed] Others see animal welfare gains as incremental steps towards animal rights.

The predominant view of modern neuroscientists, notwithstanding philosophical problems with the definition of consciousness even in humans, is that consciousness exists in nonhuman animals. However, some still maintain that consciousness is a philosophical question that may never be scientifically resolved. Remarkably, a new study has managed to overcome some of the difficulties in testing this question empirically and devised a unique way to dissociate conscious from nonconscious perception in animals. In this study conducted in rhesus monkeys, the researchers built experiments predicting completely opposite behavioral outcomes to consciously vs. non-consciously perceived stimuli. Strikingly, the monkeys' behaviors displayed these exact opposite signatures, just like aware and unaware humans tested in the study.

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