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Botanical nomenclature

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**1. Historical Development of Botanical Nomenclature:**
– The origin of botanical nomenclature in ancient Greek writings.
– Latin as the scientific language during medieval times.
– Introduction of Latin plant names by Leonhart Fuchs in the 16th century.
– Linnaeus’ establishment of binomial names for plant species in 1753.
– The Shenzhen Code adopted in 2018 for modern rules in botanical nomenclature.

**2. Relationship Between Botanical Nomenclature and Taxonomy:**
– Distinction between taxonomists determining taxa composition and nomenclature assigning names.
– Potential disagreements among taxonomists leading to different plant names.
– Debates on the distinctiveness of genera and families.
– The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) for resolving conflicts.

**3. Accepted Names and Synonyms:**
– Determination of accepted species names by botanical databases like Plants of the World Online.
– Identification of synonyms for accepted names.
– Significance of accepted names for clarity and consistency in plant identification.
– Use of ambiguous names indicating taxonomic uncertainty.

**4. Code of Botanical Nomenclature:**

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**5. Evolution and Issues in Botanical Nomenclature:**
– The need for rules in scientific nomenclature in the 19th century.
– Evolution of nomenclature laws to refine the system.
– Recognition of different groups of organisms independently of plants under the ICN.
– Issues such as damaged or immature specimens, lack of information, multiple names for the same entity, reliability concerns, and uncertain identifications.

**References and Bibliography:**
– Key references and historical works related to botanical nomenclature.
– Classification and taxonomy sources for further study and research.

Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy. Plant taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants; botanical nomenclature then provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for modern botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus' Species Plantarum of 1753. Botanical nomenclature is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), which replaces the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Fossil plants are also covered by the code of nomenclature.

Within the limits set by that code there is another set of rules, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) which applies to plant cultivars that have been deliberately altered or selected by humans (see cultigen).

Botanical nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example zoological nomenclature. This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants (e.g. there is a genus Iris in plants and a genus Iris in animals).

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