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**Group 1: General Characteristics of Liliaceae**
Liliaceae is a monocotyledonous family comprising about 15 genera and 610 species.
– These plants are perennial, herbaceous, and often bulbous or rhizomatous.
– Flowers are radially symmetric, with both male and female characteristics.
– Petals and sepals are usually similar and colorful.
– Stamens are typically in two groups of three, with single-groove pollen.
– The fruit is generally a wind-dispersed capsule.

**Group 2: Morphology and Specific Characteristics of Liliaceae**
Liliaceae plants have diverse and complicated morphologies.
– Flowers can be arranged in clusters or as a single terminal flower.
– Flowers are hermaphroditic and radially symmetric.
– The perianth is formed from six tepals in two separate whorls.
– Stamens are usually in two trimerous whorls, often fused to tepals.
– The fruit is typically a loculicidal capsule, occasionally septicidal, or a berry.

**Group 3: Evolution and Biogeography of Liliaceae**
Liliaceae family evolved approximately 68 million years ago.
– They are among the earliest monocots, with divergence occurring around 82 million years ago.
– Major evolutionary clades include Lilieae and Tulipeae.
– Different subfamilies like Medeoleae, Streptopoideae, and Calochortoideae likely dispersed to different regions.
– Fossils of Liliaceae date back to the Paleogene and Cretaceous eras, with adaptations from shade plants to open areas observed.

**Group 4: Taxonomy and Classification of Liliaceae**
– The taxonomy of Liliaceae has a complex history, with various taxonomic systems in place.
– The APG system uses molecular biology for taxonomic classification.
Liliaceae s.s. refers to the stricter sense of the family.
– Various authorities may differ on the number of genera within Liliaceae.
– Modern APG classification recognizes subfamilies like Lilioideae, Streptopoideae, and Calochortoideae.

**Group 5: History and Modern Classification of Liliaceae**
Liliaceae was formally named by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789.
– John Lindley acknowledged the diversity in the family in 1845.
– Modern APG classification established a monophyletic classification of flowering plants in 2009.
– The Lilioideae subfamily is characterized by contractile bulbs and roots.
– Evolution within Liliaceae has shown shifts in morphology, from rhizomes to bulbs, and adaptations to different environments.

Liliaceae (Wikipedia)

The lily family, Liliaceae, consists of about 15 genera and 610 species of flowering plants within the order Liliales. They are monocotyledonous, perennial, herbaceous, often bulbous geophytes. Plants in this family have evolved with a fair amount of morphological diversity despite genetic similarity. Common characteristics include large flowers with parts arranged in threes: with six colored or patterned petaloid tepals (undifferentiated petals and sepals) arranged in two whorls, six stamens and a superior ovary. The leaves are linear in shape, with their veins usually arranged parallel to the edges, single and arranged alternating on the stem, or in a rosette at the base. Most species are grown from bulbs, although some have rhizomes. First described in 1789, the lily family became a paraphyletic "catch-all" (wastebasket) group of lilioid monocots that did not fit into other families and included a great number of genera now included in other families and in some cases in other orders. Consequently, many sources and descriptions labelled "Liliaceae" deal with the broader sense of the family.

Temporal range: 68–0 Ma Late Cretaceous - Recent
Lilium martagon
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae
Type genus
L. Sp. Pl. 1: 302. (1753)
Type species
Lilium candidum
L. Sp. Pl. 1: 302. (1753)
Subfamilies and tribes

sensu APWeb

About 600 species
✶ or ÷ P3+3 A3+3 G(3)
General floral formula of the Liliacaeae: Flowers actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic and hermaphrodite with 6 undifferentiated tepals in two whorls of three, the same number and arrangement of stamens, and a superior ovary with 3 fused carpels. Individual species and genera may have more or less derived formulas.

The family evolved approximately 68 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene epochs. Liliaceae are widely distributed, mainly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and the flowers are insect pollinated. Many Liliaceae are important ornamental plants, widely grown for their attractive flowers and involved in a major floriculture of cut flowers and dry bulbs. Some species are poisonous if eaten and can have adverse health effects in humans and household pets.

A number of Liliaceae genera are popular cultivated plants in private and public spaces. Lilies and tulips in particular have had considerable symbolic and decorative value, and appear frequently in paintings and the decorative arts. They are also an economically important product. Most of their genera, Lilium in particular, face considerable herbivory pressure from deer in some areas, both wild and domestic.

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