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**Botanical Characteristics**:
Tree grows up to 10 meters tall
– Deciduous, pinnate leaves 10–20 cm long
– Dioecious, with separate male and female trees
– Flowers are apetalous and unisexual, borne in panicles
– Each mature tree produces around 50 kg of seeds every two years

**Cultivation and History**:
– Trees may live up to 300 years
– Planted in orchards, take 7-10 years to reach significant production
– Introduced to Europe by Romans in the first century AD
– Commercial cultivation began in the 19th century
– Native to Central Asia, including Iran and Afghanistan

**Health Benefits and Nutrition**:
– Pistachios rich in energy, fat, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals
– Provide 2,351 kJ (562 kcal) of food energy per 100g
– FDA approved health claim that pistachios may reduce heart disease risk
Pistachio consumption may lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels
– Consumption not linked to weight gain or obesity in normal amounts

**Diseases, Environment, and Toxicity**:
– Vulnerable to diseases and insect infestations
– California’s pistachio industry threatened by diseases
– Aflatoxin found in poorly harvested or processed pistachios
– Urushiol in pistachios can cause allergic reactions
– Droughts in Iran led to production declines

**Culinary Uses and Global Production**:
– Pistachios eaten whole, fresh, roasted, salted, or used in various dishes
– Iran and the U.S. are major pistachio producers
Pistachio processing industries contribute to Iran’s exports
– Spain transitions to pistachio cultivation
– Aflatoxin contamination is a concern in pistachios

Pistachio (Wikipedia)

The pistachio (/pɪˈstɑːʃi., -ˈstæʃ-/ pih-STAH-shee-oh, -⁠STASH-; Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating in Persia. The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food. The word can be countable or uncountable, meaning its plural is with or without an 's'.

Pistacia vera
A tan, roasted pistacho shell with the seed visible through a gap in the shell
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Pistacia
P. vera
Binomial name
Pistacia vera
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