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**Properties and Composition:**
Rosin is brittle, friable, and has a faint piny odor.
– It varies in melting point, with some being semi-fluid at boiling water temperature.
Rosin is flammable and soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, and chloroform.
– Mainly consists of abietic acid and forms salts with caustic alkalis.
– Chiefly consists of various resin acids, especially abietic acid.
Rosin is semi-transparent and ranges in color from yellow to black.

**Uses and Applications:**
Rosin is used in making varnishes, adhesives, sealing wax, and shoemakers wax.
– It is an ingredient in printing inks, varnishes, adhesives, soap, and paper sizing.
– Used in medicines, chewing gum, and soft drinks as a glazing agent.
– Enhances friction for various applications such as dance shoes, gymnasts, weightlifters, and athletes.
– Improves grip for dancers, gymnasts, rock climbers, and athletes in various sports.
– Applied in fine art for tempera emulsions, oil paintings, and aquatint rosin in printmaking.

**Health Concerns:**
– Prolonged exposure to rosin fumes during soldering can cause occupational asthma.
– Handling rosin-coated products can lead to industrial contact dermatitis.
– Sensitivity to rosin fumes can cause colophony disease.
– Different types of rosin are used based on instrument size and climate conditions.
Rosin is an FDA-approved food additive.

**Production Methods:**
Rosin is obtained from pines and conifers by heating liquid resin.
– Separation of oleo-resin into essential oil and common rosin is done through distillation.
– Tall oil rosin is produced during the distillation of crude tall oil.
Wood rosin is made from stump waste using destructive distillation or solvent processes.
Rosin production regions include Indonesia, southern China, northern Vietnam, the U.S., Mexico, and Europe.

**Industrial Applications and References:**
Rosin is used in various industries, including the production of rosin spirit, pinoline, and rosin oil.
– Different regions worldwide are major producers of rosin, using various pine species.
Rosin production involves complex processes like destructive distillation and solvent extraction.
– Studies have explored rosin’s potential in drug delivery systems and controlled release formulations.
– References from sources like “Riegels Handbook of Industrial Chemistry” provide detailed information on rosin.

Rosin (Wikipedia)

Rosin (/ˈrɒzɪn/), also called colophony or Greek pitch (Latin: pix graeca), is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components. It is semi-transparent and varies in color from yellow to black. At room temperature rosin is brittle, but it melts at stove-top temperature. It chiefly consists of various resin acids, especially abietic acid. The term colophony comes from colophonia resina, Latin for "resin from Colophon" (Ancient Greek: Κολοφωνία ῥητίνη, romanizedKolophōnía rhētínē), an ancient Ionic city. It is an FDA approved food additive.

A cake of rosin, made for use by violinists.
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