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**Composition of Resin:**
Plant resins are primarily composed of terpenes.
– Specific components include alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3 carene, sabinene, limonene, terpinolene, longifolene, caryophyllene, and delta-cadinene.
– Some resins contain a high proportion of resin acids.
– Amber is fossil resin from coniferous and other tree species.
– African copal and kauri gum are procured in a semi-fossil condition.

**Types and Sources of Resin:**
Rosin is a solidified resin with volatile terpenes removed, obtained from pines and other plants.
Shellac is an insect-derived resin, while asphaltite and Utah resin are petroleum bitumens.
Resin acids in rosin dissolve in alkalis to form resin soaps.
Plant resins are utilized by some stingless bee species in nest construction.

**Historical and Etymological Aspects of Resin:**
– Human use of plant resins has a long history, documented in ancient Greece and Rome.
Frankincense and myrrh were prized substances in ancient Egypt.
– The word ‘resin’ originates from French ‘resine’, from Latin ‘resina’, possibly of non-Indo-European origin.
Resin is used in various products like nail polish and casting resins.
– Oleoresins, mixtures of oil and resin, are used in perfumes.

**Uses of Resin:**
Plant resins are valued for varnishes, adhesives, and food glazing agents.
– They are used in the synthesis of organic compounds, incense, and perfume.
– Animal resins like lac are used for sealing wax and lacquerware.
– Synthetic resins like epoxy glue and alkyd resins find applications in various industries.

**Resin in Various Contexts:**
Resin is a hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, valued for its chemical properties.
– Bees collect resin for hive construction and maintenance, using propolis as a sealant.
Resin plays a crucial role in industrial applications, including adhesives, varnishes, paints, and composite materials.
– Archaeological studies highlight the significance of resin in ancient cultures and technological advancements.
– In forestry and botany, resin production aids in conservation efforts, with conifers using resin as a defense mechanism and resin tapping being a sustainable practice in some regions.

Resin (Wikipedia)

In polymer chemistry and materials science, a resin is a solid or highly viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. Resins are usually mixtures of organic compounds. This article focuses mainly on naturally occurring resins.

Insect trapped in resin
Cedar of Lebanon cone showing flecks of resin as used in the mummification of Egyptian Pharaohs

Plants secrete resins for their protective benefits in response to injury. Resins protect plants from insects and pathogens. Resins confound a wide range of herbivores, insects, and pathogens, while the volatile phenolic compounds may attract benefactors such as parasitoids or predators of the herbivores that attack the plant.

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