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Shorea – Wikipedia

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– Shorea fossils date back to the Eocene in Gujarat, India.
– Fossils include a Miocene-aged fruit resembling S. macroptera.
– Fossils are identifiable by amber formed by dammar resin.
– S. robusta is a dominant tree species in Indian forests.
– Borneo has 138 Shorea species, with 91 being endemic.

– Shorea spp. are native to Southeast Asia.
– The tallest tropical angiosperm is a 100.8m Shorea faguetiana.
– In west Malesia, Shorea dominates tropical forests.
– Borneo has several Shorea species over 80m tall.
– Borneo is a hotspot of Shorea diversity.

Sections and selected species:
– Shorea includes Anthoshorea, Brachypterae, Doona, Mutica, and Neohopea.
– Not placed species include Shorea robusta and Shorea thorelii.
– Selected species are Shorea agamii, Shorea smithiana, and Shorea zeylanica.
– Additional species are Shorea argentifolia, Shorea parvifolia, and Shorea isoptera.
– Shorea richetia, Shorea albida, and Shorea guiso are also part of the genus.

Reproductive biology:
– Shorea spp. are general flowering species.
– General flowering occurs at irregular intervals of 3–10 years.
– Flowering is triggered by droughts during transition periods.
– Shorea spp. are insect-pollinated.
Seed predation impacts the reproduction process.

– Shorea species are economically important timber trees.
– Products include dammar resin and Borneo tallow nut oil.
– Dammar resin varies in color among taxonomic groups.
– Shorea spp. are sold under trade names like lauan and balau.
– Philippine mahogany in North America is a mixture of Shorea woods.

Conservation status:
– Most of the 148 Shorea species listed on the IUCN Red List are critically endangered.
– Concerns exist about threat assessment criteria for dipterocarps.
– The IUCN Red List provides threat classifications for Shorea species.
– Various studies explore aspects of Shorea species’ conservation.
– Conservation efforts are crucial for the survival of Shorea species.

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