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**Botanical Characteristics:**
Breadfruit trees can grow up to 26 meters in height.
– The leaves are large, thick, and yield latex used for boat caulking.
Breadfruit trees are monoecious, with male and female flowers on the same tree.
– The fruit is ovoid, seedless in most cultivated varieties, and has a rough surface.
Breadfruit is highly productive, with a single tree yielding up to 200 fruits per season.

**Propagation and Cultivation:**
Breadfruit is mainly propagated by seeds or transplanting suckers from surface roots.
– Injuring roots induces sucker growth for propagation.
– Suckers are planted in a mixture of soil, peat, and sand for rooting.
– For large-scale propagation, root cuttings about 10cm thick and 20cm long are preferred.
– Young trees are ready for planting when they reach 60cm in height.

**Distribution, Taxonomy, and Etymology:**
Breadfruit is an equatorial lowland species that grows best below 650m elevation but can be found up to 1550m.
– DNA studies show breadfruit’s wild seeded ancestor is the breadnut.
– The term ‘breadfruit’ comes from the bread-like texture of the fruit when baked.
Breadfruit has numerous common names that vary by geographic distribution.
Breadfruit was domesticated from the breadnut by Austronesian voyagers.

**Nutrition, Culinary Uses, and Other Applications:**
Breadfruit per 100g provides 431kJ (103kcal) of energy, 27.12g of carbohydrates, 4.9g of dietary fiber, and 1.07g of protein.
Breadfruit is a staple food in tropical regions and can be used ripe or unripe in cooking.
Breadfruit can be ground into flour, seeds cooked for consumption, and preserved by fermenting in pits.
Breadfruit wood is used for structures and canoes, and the pulp can make paper.
– Phytochemicals in breadfruit have insect repellent properties, and discarded parts can feed livestock.

**Economic, Cultural, Health, and Environmental Impact:**
Breadfruit is an important food source in tropical regions and a traditional staple crop in Pacific Islands.
– It supports livelihoods of farmers, is exported for commercial purposes, and plays a role in local cuisines and traditions.
Breadfruit is rich in antioxidants, may have anti-inflammatory properties, and is being researched for potential health benefits.
– It is a drought-resistant tree, low maintenance crop, helps prevent soil erosion, supports agroforestry systems, and promotes biodiversity in ecosystems.

Breadfruit (Wikipedia)

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry and jackfruit family (Moraceae) believed to be a domesticated descendant of Artocarpus camansi originating in New Guinea, the Maluku Islands, and the Philippines. It was initially spread to Oceania via the Austronesian expansion. It was further spread to other tropical regions of the world during the Colonial Era. British and French navigators introduced a few Polynesian seedless varieties to Caribbean islands during the late 18th century. Today it is grown in some 90 countries throughout South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean, Central America and Africa. Its name is derived from the texture of the moderately ripe fruit when cooked, similar to freshly baked bread and having a potato-like flavor.

Breadfruit at Tortuguero, Costa Rica
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Genus: Artocarpus
A. altilis
Binomial name
Artocarpus altilis
  • Artocarpus altilis var. non-seminiferus (Duss) Fournet)
  • Artocarpus altilis var. seminiferus (Duss) Fournet
  • Artocarpus communis J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
  • Artocarpus incisifolius Stokes [Illegitimate]
  • Artocarpus incisus (Thunb.) L.f.
  • Artocarpus incisus var. non-seminiferus Duss
  • Artocarpus incisus var. seminiferus Duss
  • Artocarpus laevis Hassk.
  • Artocarpus papuanus Diels [Illegitimate]
  • Artocarpus rima Blanco
  • Radermachia incisa Thunb. [Unplaced]
  • Saccus laevis Kuntze
  • Sitodium altile Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn

The trees have been widely planted in tropical regions, including lowland Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. In addition to the fruit serving as a staple food in many cultures, the light, sturdy timber of breadfruit has been used for outriggers, ships, and houses in the tropics.

Breadfruit is closely related to Artocarpus camansi (breadnut or seeded breadfruit) of New Guinea, the Maluku Islands, and the Philippines, Artocarpus blancoi (tipolo or antipolo) of the Philippines, and Artocarpus mariannensis (dugdug) of Micronesia, all of which are sometimes also referred to as "breadfruit". It is also closely related to the jackfruit.

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