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**Group 1: Description and Cultivation of Parsley**
– Garden parsley is a bright green, biennial plant.
– In the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves with numerous leaflets.
– In the second year, it grows a flowering stem to 75cm tall with flat-topped umbels.
– The seeds are ovoid, 2–3mm long, with prominent style remnants.
Parsley is native to Greece, Morocco, and the former Yugoslavia.
– It is widely cultivated in Europe and other suitable climates worldwide.
Parsley thrives in moist, well-drained soil with full sun.
– Best grown between 22–30°C (72–86°F) from seed.
Germination can take four to six weeks.
– Attracts wildlife like butterflies and bees.

**Group 2: Culinary Uses and Varieties of Parsley**
– Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish.
– Green parsley is used on various dishes like rice, fish, and meats.
Parsley seeds are used in cooking for a stronger flavor.
– Bouquet garni in Europe includes parsley in stocks, soups, and sauces.
– Italian salsa verde and Gremolata use parsley as a main ingredient.
– Curly-leaf parsley is commonly used as a garnish.
– Flat-leaf parsley is preferred by chefs for its stronger flavor.
Root parsley is a common ingredient in soups and stews.
– Italian parsley is a type of flat-leaf parsley used in Mediterranean cuisine.
– Hamburg parsley, a type of root parsley, is popular in Central Europe.

**Group 3: Medicinal Properties and Nutritional Content of Parsley**
Parsley is a source of antioxidants, vitamins A, C, and K.
– It has been used traditionally to aid digestion and freshen breath.
Parsley tea is believed to help with bloating and urinary tract infections.
– The essential oil of parsley is used in aromatherapy.
– Some studies suggest parsley may have anti-inflammatory properties.
Parsley contains 36kcal of energy per 100g and 6.33g of carbohydrates.
– Rich in vitamins A, C, and K, as well as minerals like calcium, iron, and potassium.
– Fresh parsley provides 151kJ of energy per 100g and 2.97g of protein.
– High in vitamins like thiamine, niacin, and folate, and minerals such as magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc.
– Dried parsley is a good source of lycopene, apigenin, and beta carotene.

**Group 4: Precautions and Cultivation Tips for Parsley**
– Pregnant women should avoid excessive parsley consumption.
– Normal amounts are safe, but large quantities may have uterotonic effects.
Parsley is grown as a herb and a vegetable.
– Literary evidence suggests parsley was used in England as early as the Middle Ages.
Parsley grows best in full sun and well-drained soil.
– Regular watering is essential for parsley cultivation.
– Mulching helps retain moisture.
– Grown 10cm apart for leaf crops and 20cm apart for root crops.

**Group 5: Types of Parsley and Cultivars**
– Curly parsley
– Italian flat-leaf parsley
– Hamburg parsley
– Japanese parsley
Root parsley
– Two main groups are French curly leaf and Italian flat leaf parsley.
– Flat-leaved parsley is easier to cultivate and has a disputed stronger flavor.
– Curly leaf parsley is preferred for garnishing.
Root parsley, like Hamburg root parsley, is used in central and eastern European cuisine.
Root parsley has thicker roots compared to leaf parsley.

Parsley (Wikipedia)

Parsley, or garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae that is native to Greece, Morocco and the former Yugoslavia. It has been introduced and naturalized in Europe and elsewhere in the world with suitable climates, and is widely cultivated as a herb, and a vegetable.

Parsley leaves and flowers
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Petroselinum
P. crispum
Binomial name
Petroselinum crispum
    • Ammi petroselinoides C.Presl ex DC.
    • Anisactis segetalis Dulac
    • Apium crispum Mill.
    • Apium laetum Salisb.
    • Apium latifolium Mill.
    • Apium latifolium Poir.
    • Apium occidentale Calest.
    • Apium peregrinum (L.) Crantz
    • Apium petroselinum L.
    • Apium petroselinum var. angustifolium Hayne
    • Apium petroselinum var. variegatum Nois.
    • Apium petroselinum var. vulgare Nois.
    • Apium romanum Zuccagni
    • Apium tuberosum Steud.
    • Apium vulgare Lam.
    • Bupleurum petroselinoides Spreng.
    • Carum peregrinum L.
    • Carum petroselinum (L.) Benth. & Hook.f.
    • Carum vulgare Druce
    • Cnidium petroselinum DC.
    • Ligusticum peregrinum L.
    • Petroselinum anatolicum Freyn & Sint.
    • Petroselinum crispum var. angustifolium (Hayne) Reduron
    • Petroselinum crispum f. angustifolium (Hayne) Danert
    • Petroselinum crispum f. breve (Alef.) Danert
    • Petroselinum crispum var. erfurtense Danert
    • Petroselinum crispum f. hispanicum (Alef.) Danert
    • Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum Danert
    • Petroselinum crispum var. petroselinum (L.) Reduron
    • Petroselinum crispum var. radicosum (Alef.) Danert
    • Petroselinum crispum f. tenuisectum (Danert) Danert
    • Petroselinum crispum subsp. tuberosum (Bernh. ex Rchb.) Soó
    • Petroselinum crispum f. variegatum (Nois.) Danert
    • Petroselinum crispum var. vulgare (Nois.) Danert
    • Petroselinum fractophyllum Lag. ex Sweet
    • Petroselinum hortense Hoffm.
    • Petroselinum hortense f. tenuisectum Danert
    • Petroselinum macedonicum Bubani
    • Petroselinum peregrinum (L.) Lag.
    • Petroselinum romanum (Zuccagni) Sweet
    • Petroselinum sativum Hoffm.
    • Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. ex Gaudin
    • Petroselinum sativum var. breve Alef.
    • Petroselinum sativum var. hispanicum Alef.
    • Petroselinum sativum var. longum Alef.
    • Petroselinum sativum convar. radicosum Alef.
    • Petroselinum sativum var. silvestre Alef.
    • Petroselinum sativum var. variegatum (Nois.) Alef.
    • Petroselinum sativum var. vulgare (Nois.) Alef.
    • Petroselinum selinoides DC.
    • Petroselinum thermoeri Weinm.
    • Petroselinum vulgare Lag.
    • Petroselinum vulgare Hill
    • Peucedanum intermedium Simonk.
    • Peucedanum petroselinum (L.) Desf.
    • Selinum petroselinum (L.) E.H.L.Krause
    • Siler japonicum (Thunb.) Tanaka
    • Sison peregrinum Spreng.
    • Sium oppositifolium Kit. ex Schult.
    • Sium petroselinum Vest
    • Wydleria portoricensis DC.

It is believed to have been originally grown in Sardinia and was cultivated in around the 3rd century BC. Linnaeus stated its wild habitat to be Sardinia, whence it was brought to England and apparently first cultivated in Britain in 1548, though literary evidence suggests parsley was used in England in the Middle Ages, as early as the Anglo-Saxon period.

Parsley is widely used in European, Middle Eastern, and American cuisine. Curly-leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. In central Europe, eastern Europe, and southern Europe, as well as in western Asia, many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Flat-leaf parsley is similar, but is often preferred by chefs because it has a stronger flavor. Root parsley is very common in central, eastern, and southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups, stews, and casseroles.

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