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Pine honey

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**Production of Pine Honey:**
Pine honey is a type of honeydew honey.
– It is produced by bees collecting honeydew from scale insects living on pine trees.
Pine honey is commonly found in pine forests where other honey sources are scarce.
– Major production areas include Turkey, the Middle East, the Balkans, and Greek mountains.
– Turkey is the largest producer of pine honey, accounting for 92% of global production.

**Characteristics of Pine Honey:**
Pine honey has a sweet and spicy flavor with woody notes.
– It has a dark amber color and a resinous fragrance.
Pine honey is used in breakfast dishes in Turkey and Greece.
– It is drizzled over yogurt and eaten with bread.
– Monastic communities in Greece, like Mount Athos, are known for their pine honey production.

**Varieties of Pine Trees for Pine Honey Production:**
Pine honey is produced from various pine tree species.
– Common trees include Turkish Pine, Aleppo Pine, Austrian Pine, Scots Pine, and Stone Pine.
– The scale insect species Marchalina hellenica lives on these pine trees.
– Bees collect honeydew secretions from these insects to make pine honey.
Pine honey is primarily produced in the eastern Mediterranean regions.

**Significance of Pine Honey Production:**
– In Greece, pine honey accounts for 60–65% of total honey production.
– Muğla Province in Turkey contributes 80% of Turkish pine honey production.
Pine honey production is integrated into forest management optimization.
– The honey is a valuable economic resource for regions with abundant pine forests.
Pine honey production supports local economies in areas where it is harvested.

**References on Pine Honey:**
– Various books provide information on beekeeping, honey production, and forest systems.
– Studies have been conducted on the phenology of Marchalina hellenica.
– Turkey’s dominance in global pine honey production is documented.
– Resources outline the importance of pine honey in different regions.
– References provide insights into the history and significance of pine honey.

Pine honey (Wikipedia)

Pine honey (Greek: πευκόμελο, romanizedpefkomelo; Turkish: çam balı) is a type of honeydew honey. It is a sweet and spicy honey, with some woody notes, a resinous fragrance and dark amber color. It is a common breakfast dish in Turkey and Greece, where it is drizzled over yoghurt and eaten with bread.

Pine honey is an unusual honey, because it is not produced entirely by honey bees. It is produced by bees that collect honeydew (sugary secretions) from a scale insect species called Marchalina hellenica, which lives on the sap of certain pine trees. The M. hellenica can be found on the Turkish Pine (Pinus brutia), as well as the Aleppo Pine (P. halepensis), Austrian Pine (P. nigra), Scots Pine (P. sylvestris), and Stone Pine (P. pinea).

Pine honey is commonly produced anywhere pine forests are plentiful and conventional honey sources, such as flowers or fruit tree blossoms, are few. It can be found in some heavily forested areas of Germany, Norway, Italy, New Zealand, and the United States but is primarily produced in the pine forests of the eastern Mediterranean. Major production occurs in Turkey, the Middle East, the Balkans, and many Greek mountains and islands. The monastic communities at Mount Athos in Greece are renowned for their pine honey production and throughout Greece pine honey makes up 60–65% of total honey production. Turkey produces 92% of the world’s pine honey. Muğla Province accounts for 80% of Turkish pine honey production.

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