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**Botanical Information**
Pineapple is a herbaceous perennial plant.
– It grows to 1.0 to 1.5m tall on average.
– The plant produces up to 200 flowers that join together to create a multiple fruit.
– Side shoots called suckers are produced for propagation.
– Pineapples have 30 or more long, sharp-spined leaves.
Pineapple comprises five botanical varieties: bracteatus, comosus, erectifolius, microstachys, and parguazensis.
– The genomes of three varieties have been sequenced.
– Distribution ranges from Brazil to various islands in the Pacific.

**Historical Background**
– The first English reference to the pineapple fruit was in 1568.
Pineapple cultivation dates back to precolonial times in South America.
– Pineapples were encountered by Columbus in Guadeloupe in 1493.
– The term ‘pineapple’ originated from the Tupi word ‘nanas.’
Pineapple cultivation dates back to 1200–800 BC in Peru.
– The Portuguese introduced pineapples to India by 1550.
– Mass commercialization of pineapples began in the 19th century.

**Nutritional Information**
– Raw pineapple is 86% water.
– Rich source of manganese and vitamin C.
– Negligible fat content.
– Provides 209 kJ of energy per 100g.
– Contains various vitamins and minerals.
– 50 kcal energy per 100g.
– High in carbohydrates and sugars.
– Good source of dietary fiber.
– Rich in vitamin C.
– Contains essential minerals like potassium and manganese.

**Cultivation and Production**
– In 2022, global pineapple production reached 29 million tonnes.
– Indonesia, the Philippines, and Costa Rica were the top producers.
– Flowering can be induced artificially in commercial farming.
– Early harvesting of the main fruit can encourage the growth of a second crop.
Pineapple tops can be planted to grow new plants.
– Slips and suckers are commonly planted commercially.

**Uses and Industry**
Pineapple is used worldwide in various cuisines, sold fresh, and used in dishes like Hawaiian pizza.
Pineapple juice is popular in cocktails like piña colada.
Pineapple vinegar is utilized in Honduran and Filipino cuisine.
Pineapple is a significant economic crop, with a notable trade in pineapple juice.
– Pineapples are canned in sugar syrup post-harvest.
– Pineapples play a role in economic activities and global trade.

Pineapple (Wikipedia)

The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible fruit; it is the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.

A pineapple on its parent plant
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Bromeliaceae
Genus: Ananas
A. comosus
Binomial name
Ananas comosus
    • Ananas acostae C. Commelijn
    • Ananas ananas (L.) H.Karst. ex Voss nom. inval.
    • Ananas argentata J.C.Wendl. ex Schult. & Schult.f.
    • Ananas aurata J.C.Wendl. ex Schult. & Schult.f.
    • Ananas bracteatus Baker
    • Ananas coccineus Descourt.
    • Ananas debilis Schult. & Schult.f.
    • Ananas lyman-smithii Camargo nom. inval.
    • Ananas maxima Schult. & Schult.f.
    • Ananas monstrosus (Carrière) L.B.Sm.
    • Ananas ovatus Mill.
    • Ananas pancheanus André
    • Ananas penangensis Baker
    • Ananas porteanus Veitch ex K.Koch
    • Ananas pyramidalis Mill.
    • Ananas sativa Lindl.
    • Ananas sativus Schult. & Schult.f.
    • Ananas serotinus Mill.
    • Ananas viridis Mill.
    • Ananassa ananas (L.) H.Karst.
    • Ananassa debilis Lindl.
    • Ananassa monstrosa Carrière
    • Ananassa porteana (Veitch ex K.Koch) Carrière
    • Ananassa sativa (Schult. & Schult.f.) Lindl. ex Beer
    • Bromelia ananas L.
    • Bromelia ananas Willd.
    • Bromelia communis Lam.
    • Bromelia comosa L.
    • Bromelia edulis Salisb. nom. illeg.
    • Bromelia mai-pouri Perrier
    • Bromelia pigna Perrier
    • Bromelia rubra Schult. & Schult.f.
    • Bromelia violacea Schult. & Schult.f.
    • Bromelia viridis (Mill.) Schult. & Schult.f.
    • Distiacanthus communis (Lam.) Rojas Acosta

The pineapple is indigenous to South America, where it has been cultivated for many centuries. The introduction of the pineapple plant to Europe in the 17th century made it a significant cultural icon of luxury. Since the 1820s, pineapple has been commercially grown in greenhouses and many tropical plantations.

Pineapples grow as a small shrub; the individual flowers of the unpollinated plant fuse to form a multiple fruit. The plant normally propagates from the offset produced at the top of the fruit or from a side shoot, and typically matures within a year.

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