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**Ancient Pyramids:**

– Mesopotamia: Home to ziggurats, ancient pyramidal structures built by various civilizations using sun-dried mud-brick with colored facings and astrological significance. Notable examples include the Anu ziggurat and White Temple in Uruk, dating back to around 4000 BC.
– Egypt: Famous for the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, built primarily as tombs for pharaohs. Sudan has the most extant pyramids, with Nubian pyramids serving as tombs for kings and queens of Napata and Meroë.
– Greece: Mentioned in historical texts, Greek pyramids were built as tombs for soldiers and Argives, with structures like the Pyramid of Hellinikon having inwardly sloping walls and large central rooms.
– Asia: The pyramid of Khafre in Egypt and the Mesoamerican Great Pyramid of Cholula in Mexico are notable structures. Pyramids were built by various civilizations worldwide for religious and monumental purposes.
– Modern Pyramids: Pyramids continue to be built for various purposes, incorporating glass, steel, and contemporary materials. Iconic modern pyramids can be found in countries like the United Arab Emirates and Kazakhstan, blending traditional shapes with modern styles.

**African Pyramids:**

– Egypt: Pyramids were primarily made of locally quarried limestone, sparking debates about their age compared to other African pyramids. The dating methods and controversies surrounding African pyramids are part of the Black Athena debate.
– Other African Pyramids: The Tomb of Askia in Mali and Nsude pyramids in Nigeria are notable structures. Researchers like Lefkowitz and Liritzis have been key figures in the debate over the dating of African pyramids.

**European Pyramids:**

– Spain: The Pyramids of Güímar are terraced structures built from lava without mortar. The Pyramid of Cestius in Rome dates back to the 1st century BC. Pyramids were occasionally used in Christian architecture during medieval Europe.
– Other European Pyramids: Pyramids were built in various regions with unique styles and purposes, such as the Canary Islands. The use of pyramids in Europe varied across time periods.

**American Pyramids:**

– Andean Cultures: Constructed pyramids around the same time as early Egyptian pyramids. Mesoamerican pyramids were stepped with temples on top, akin to ziggurats. Platform mounds in North America were built by pre-Columbian Native American societies.
– Other American Pyramids: Various cultures in the Americas used pyramids for religious and ceremonial purposes, showcasing unique architectural styles and purposes.

**Asian Pyramids:**

– China: Ancient tomb pyramids, including those of the First Emperor Qin Shi Huang. South India saw giant temple pyramids during the Chola Empire. Indonesia featured Austronesian megalithic culture with step pyramid structures.
– Other Asian Pyramids: Different regions in Asia had unique styles and purposes for building pyramids, including Buddhist stupas in East Asia and various step pyramid structures influenced by cultural and religious beliefs.

**Modern Pyramid Structures:**

– Notable Modern Pyramids: Louvre Pyramid in Paris, Luxor Hotel in Las Vegas, Memphis Pyramid in Tennessee, Walter Pyramid in California, and the Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco are iconic modern pyramid structures.
– Modern Mausoleums: Pyramid-shaped tombs like Quintino Sella’s tomb in Italy, Hunts Tomb in Arizona, and Nicolas Cage’s tomb in New Orleans. Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans features Egyptian Revival pyramids.
– Other Modern Pyramid Structures: Examples include the Pyramid of Tirana in Albania, Slovak Radio Building in Bratislava, Palace of Peace and Reconciliation in Kazakhstan, Moody Gardens pyramids in Texas, and Stockport Pyramid in England.

Pyramid (Wikipedia)

A pyramid (from Ancient Greek πυραμίς (puramís) 'pyramid') is a structure whose visible surfaces are triangular and converge to a point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be of any polygon shape, such as trilateral or quadrilateral (a 2-dimensional shape is a triangle.)

Pyramid of Khafre, Egypt, built c. 2600 BC

A pyramid has the majority of its mass closer to the ground with less mass towards the pyramidion at the apex. This is due to the gradual decrease in the cross-sectional area along the vertical axis with increasing elevation. This offers a weight distribution that allowed early civilizations to create monumental structures.

Prasat Thom temple at Koh Ker, Cambodia

Civilizations in many parts of the world have built pyramids. The largest pyramid by volume is the Mesoamerican Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. For millennia, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids—first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis and then the Great Pyramid of Khufu, both in Egypt—the latter is the only extant example of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

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