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**Production of Seitan**:
– Gluten extraction from wheat flour by washing dough in water to remove starch granules.
– Cooking the sticky gluten left behind in various ways.
– Drying and grinding vital wheat gluten into a powder.
– Rehydrating the powder into a mass of gluten (seitan) for cooking.
– Existence of industrial methods for separating gluten from starch.

**History and Etymology**:
– Consumption of wheat gluten in China since the 6th century as a meat substitute.
– Introduction of wheat gluten to the West in the 18th century.
– Promotion of wheat gluten consumption by various groups, including Seventh-day Adventists.
– Origin of the term ‘seitan’ in Japan in 1961 by George Ohsawa.
– Uncertain etymology of ‘seitan’ likely referring to its protein content.

**Forms of Seitan**:
– Various forms of wheat gluten in Chinese cuisine, including deep-fried, baked spongy, and solid gluten.
– Preparation of dry baked wheat gluten (yaki-fu) in Japan.
– Vietnamese forms of wheat gluten known as mì căng or mì căn.
– Different cooking methods and flavor profiles of wheat gluten in Vietnamese cuisine.

**Usage in Different Culinary Contexts**:
– Evolution of seitan’s meaning from a seasoning to wheat gluten seasoned with soy sauce in macrobiotic diets.
– Introduction and popularization of wheat gluten products in North America.
– Adoption of seitan as a meat alternative by vegetarians in Western nations.
– Various forms and flavors of seitan products in North America and Germany.

**Vital Wheat Gluten and Other Uses**:
– Usage of powdered vital wheat gluten as an additive for baking or making seitan.
– Benefits of vital wheat gluten in improving rise, texture, and elasticity of baked goods.
– Preparation of vital wheat gluten for making seitan with flavorings like liquid smoke and garlic powder.
– Utilization of wheat gluten as a protein source in animal feed, with a cautionary note on past incidents of adulteration.

Seitan (Wikipedia)

Seitan (UK: /ˈstæn/, US: /-tɑːn/; Japanese: セイタン) is a food made from gluten, the main protein of wheat. It is also known as miànjīn (Chinese: 麵筋), fu (Japanese: ), milgogi (Korean: 밀고기), wheat meat, gluten meat, or simply gluten. It is made from vital wheat gluten, a flour-like substance primarily consisting of gluten extracted from wheat flour.

Slices of roasted seitan
Place of originChina
Associated cuisine
Main ingredientsWheat gluten
Commercially packaged seitan

Wheat gluten is an alternative to soybean-based foods, such as tofu, which are sometimes used as a meat alternative. Some types of wheat gluten have a chewy or stringy texture that resembles meat more than other substitutes. Wheat gluten is often used instead of meat in Asian, vegetarian, vegan, Buddhist, and macrobiotic cuisines. Mock duck is a common use.

Wheat gluten first appeared during the 6th century as an ingredient for Chinese noodles. It has historically been popular in the cuisines of China, Japan and other East and Southeast Asian nations. In Asia, it is commonly found on the menus of restaurants catering primarily to Buddhist customers who do not eat meat.

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