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**Tempeh Origins and Production**:
– Etymology: ‘Tempeh’ derived from Old Javanese ‘tumpi’ or ‘tape’ meaning fermentation.
– History: Originated in Indonesia, likely in central or east Java.
– Traditional fermentation process using Rhizopus spp. molds on soybeans.
– Use of black soybeans before white/yellow soybeans were imported.
– Initial tempeh making with ‘usar’ instead of store-bought ‘ragi’ for fermentation.

**Nutritional Value and Health Benefits**:
– Good source of protein, dietary fiber, and vitamins.
– Firm texture and earthy flavor.
– Staple protein source in Indonesia, especially in Java.
– Nutritional profile differs from tofu due to whole soybeans used.
– Contains essential nutrients like calcium, iron, magnesium, and potassium.

**Tempeh Quality, Packaging, and Preservation**:
– Quality categories: good, unfinished, inedible based on appearance and texture.
– Packaging materials: banana leaf, food-grade wrapping paper, polyethylene bags.
– Refrigeration or freezing immediately after processing.
– Proper storage methods for preserving freshness and shelf life.
– Different preservation techniques like blanching, freezing, and dehydration.

**Effects of Fermentation and Nutritional Composition**:
– Fermentation increases digestibility of soy carbohydrates.
– Reduction of oligosaccharides associated with gas and indigestion.
Tempeh composition: 60% water, 20% protein, 8% carbohydrates, 11% fats.
– Fortification with vitamin B12 through fermentation is possible.
– Starter cultures may contain bacteria producing vitamins.

**Tempeh Cooking Methods and Dishes**:
– Various cooking methods like frying, braising, marinating, and steaming.
– Traditional Javanese preparations with deep frying and marination.
– Versatile uses in dishes like chili, stir-fries, salads, and stews.
– Different tempeh types: gembus, murni, oat tempeh, and tempeh sandwich.
– Popular tempeh dishes like penyet, satay, kripik, tumis, and bacem.

Tempeh (Wikipedia)

Tempeh or tempe (/ˈtɛmp/; Javanese: ꦠꦺꦩ꧀ꦥꦺ, romanized: témpé, Javanese pronunciation: [tempe]) is a traditional Indonesian food made from fermented soybeans. It is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form. A fungus, Rhizopus oligosporus or Rhizopus oryzae, is used in the fermentation process and is also known as tempeh starter.

Fresh tempeh
Alternative namesTempe
Place of originIndonesia
Region or stateCentral Java,
East Java,
Special Region of Yogyakarta
Main ingredientsSoybeans, Fermentation starter (Rhizopus spp.)
Tempeh being sold in a traditional market in Indonesia

It is especially popular on the island of Java, where it is a staple source of protein. Like tofu, tempeh is made from soybeans, but it is a whole-soybean product with different nutritional characteristics and textural qualities. Tempeh's fermentation process and its retention of the whole bean give it a higher content of protein, dietary fiber, and vitamins. It has a firm texture and an earthy flavor, which becomes more pronounced as it ages.

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