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**Oat Cultivation:**
– Originated in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East.
– Domestication occurred in the Middle East and Europe.
– Thrives in temperate regions with cool, wet summers.
– Planted in autumn or spring for harvest.
– Important in regions where wheat, rye, or barley struggle.
– Top oat producers in 2022: Canada, Russia, Australia, Poland, Brazil.

**Oat Production and Usage:**
– Global oat production in 2022 was 26 million tonnes.
– Canada led with 20% of total production, followed by Russia with 17%.
– Commonly used in oatmeal, flour, oatcakes, cookies, and granola.
– Key ingredient in cold cereals, muesli, and oat milk.
– Historically important in British and Scottish diets.
– Used as feed for horses, cattle, and ruminants.

**Oat Health Benefits:**
– High in fiber, protein, and essential vitamins.
– Rich in dietary fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like manganese.
– Soluble fiber like beta-glucans can lower cholesterol.
– FDA allows health claims for foods with soluble fiber from oats.
Oat beta-glucan has cholesterol-lowering properties.

**Celiac Disease and Oats:**
– Celiac disease triggered by gluten proteins.
Oat avenins can be toxic to some celiac individuals.
– Pure oats can be part of a gluten-free diet but may cause reactions.
– Prevalence of celiac disease is about 1% in the developed world.
– Gluten types in wheat, barley, rye, and oats contain toxic prolamins.

**Agronomy and Production Practices:**
– Oats sown in spring or summer in colder regions.
– Cold-tolerant and unaffected by late frosts.
– Sowing rates typically 125-175 kg/ha.
– Oats remove nitrogen at a rate of 1 lb per bushel.
– Vigorous growth suppresses most weeds.
– Diseases like Rust can affect yield and require monitoring.

Oat (Wikipedia)

The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals). Oats are used for human consumption as oatmeal, including as steel cut oats or rolled oats. Oats are a nutrient-rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol and reduced risk of human heart disease when consumed regularly. One of the most common uses of oats is as livestock feed.

Oat plants with inflorescences
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Genus: Avena
A. sativa
Binomial name
Avena sativa
L. (1753)

Avenins are oat gluten proteins, similar to gliadin in wheat. They can trigger celiac disease in a small proportion of people. Also, oat products are frequently contaminated by other gluten-containing grains, mainly wheat and barley.

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