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**Group 1: Wheat Description and Production**

Wheat is a grass cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain.
– The most widely grown species is common wheat (T. aestivum).
Wheat was first cultivated around 9600 BC in the Fertile Crescent.
Wheat is grown on 220.7 million hectares globally.
– World wheat production was 771 million tonnes in 2021.
– China, India, and Russia are the top wheat producers.
– Russia, the U.S., Canada, and France are major wheat exporters.
– Indonesia, Egypt, and Turkey are significant wheat importers.

**Group 2: Wheat Nutrition and Health**

Wheat is a leading source of vegetable proteins with a protein content of about 13%.
– When eaten as whole grain, wheat provides multiple nutrients and dietary fiber.
– Gluten in wheat can trigger various conditions in some individuals.
Wheat provides 1,368 kJ (327 kcal) of energy per 100g.
Wheat proteins are deficient in lysine, requiring supplementation.
Wheat gluten can trigger coeliac disease, affecting about 1% of the population in developed countries.
– Other diseases triggered by wheat include non-coeliac gluten sensitivity and gluten ataxia.

**Group 3: Wheat History and Evolution**

Wheat was harvested by hunter-gatherers in West Asia for thousands of years before domestication.
– Domesticated wheat has larger grains and non-shattering heads.
– Genetic evidence suggests wheat was domesticated independently in multiple places.
Wheat spread to various regions over time, reaching Egypt, Greece, Germany, Spain, the British Isles, Scandinavia, and the Americas.
Wheat species are diploid or stable polyploids with four or six sets of chromosomes.
– Numerous forms of wheat developed under artificial and natural selection, including common wheat, spelt, durum, emmer, and Khorasan.

**Group 4: Wheat Cultivation and Agronomy**

– Selection for larger grains and non-shattering heads led to domesticated wheat.
– Wild einkorn wheat and wild emmer wheat were first cultivated in specific regions.
Wheat requires specific soil conditions, rainfall, and a certain height before winter for optimal growth.
– Technological advances in soil preparation, seed placement, and machinery have enhanced wheat cultivation.
Wheat is an annual crop planted in autumn or spring and harvested using a combine harvester.
– Detailed understanding of plant development stages, fertilization timing, and climate risks are crucial for successful wheat farming.

**Group 5: Wheat Varieties, Pests, and Breeding**

– Norin 10 wheat and dwarf wheat greatly increased yields in some regions.
– Pests and diseases consume 21.47% of the global wheat crop annually.
– Breeding objectives for wheat include high yield, quality, and traits like high grain iron and zinc content.
– Pathogens and wheat coevolve, with wheat rusts adapting for successful spore propagation.
– Insect pests, birds, and rodents can cause significant damage to wheat crops, requiring pest management strategies.

Wheat (Wikipedia)

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain that is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum (/ˈtrɪtɪkəm/); the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BC. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a caryopsis, a type of fruit.

Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Triticeae
Genus: Triticum
Type species
Triticum aestivum

Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.7 million hectares or 545 million acres in 2021). World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2021, world wheat production was 771 million tonnes (850 million short tons), making it the second most-produced cereal after maize (known as corn in the US and Australia; wheat is often called corn in other countries). Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing because of the usefulness of gluten to the food industry.

Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetable proteins in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals but relatively low in protein quality (supplying essential amino acids). When eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fiber. In a small part of the general population, gluten – which comprises most of the protein in wheat – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis.

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