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Stem-cell therapy

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**Medical Uses of Stem-Cell Therapy:**
– Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is widely used for conditions like leukemia, lymphoma, and acute graft-vs-host disease.
– FDA has approved hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood.
– Limbal stem cells are recommended for severe limbal stem cell deficiency.
– Prochymal, an allogenic stem therapy, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012.

**Research on Stem Cells:**
– Stem cells are being studied for potential treatments in various diseases and conditions.
– Stem cell secretome plays a role in mediating effects in degenerative, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases.
– Ongoing research focuses on the functions and mechanisms of stem cells in treatment.
– Molecules and exosomes released from stem cells are studied for medication development.

**Sources and Types of Stem Cells:**
– Main sources for human stem cells are bone marrow and adipose tissue for regenerative therapy.
– Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into various tissue types.
– New research is exploring mesenchymal stem cells in skin, dermis, and extra embryonic sources.
– Adipose-derived stem cells require less extensive culturing than bone marrow-derived cells.

**Ethical and Controversial Aspects of Stem-Cell Therapy:**
– Controversy over human embryonic stem cell use due to destruction of blastocysts.
– Opposition based on moral, philosophical, or religious objections.
– Clinical trials and research are exploring alternatives like adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.
– Acquisition of stem cell assets for clinical trials in regenerative medicine.

**Applications and Advancements in Stem-Cell Therapy:**
– Stem cells are used in drug discovery for growing functional adult tissues and testing new drugs.
– Stem cell expansion methods include two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell culture.
– Stem cells have shown promise in brain degeneration diseases like Parkinson’s, ALS, and Alzheimer’s.
– Potential applications include treating brain and spinal cord injuries, blood-cell formation, and neurological disorders.

Stem-cell therapy (Wikipedia)

Stem-cell therapy uses stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. As of 2016, the only established therapy using stem cells is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This usually takes the form of a bone marrow transplantation, but the cells can also be derived from umbilical cord blood. Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells as well as to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.

Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer, and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is often related to abortion politics and human cloning. Additionally, efforts to market treatments based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.

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