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Vegan organic agriculture

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**1. Veganic Gardening and Agriculture:**
– Veganic gardening method developed by Rosa Dalziel OBrien, Kenneth Dalziel OBrien, and May E. Bruce.
– Utilizes straw and vegetable wastes for soil fertility maintenance.
– Non-compacting surface cultivation techniques are employed.
– Land clearing involves heat, moisture, lime, straw cover, and herbal compost activator.
– Term ‘veganic’ introduced by Scott Nearing at the 1953 World Vegetarian Congress.
– Practices include green manures, cover crops, composted vegetable matter, and minerals.
– Some use human urine and humanure from vegans for nitrogen.
– Biocyclic vegan farms use preventative methods for insect management.
– Insecticides like Bacillus thuringiensis used as a last resort.
– Biocyclic Vegan Standard accredited organic standard for vegan organic farms.

**2. Certification and Promotion:**
– Biocyclic Vegan Standard accredited by BNS Biocyclic Network Services Ltd.
– 21 farms in Europe accredited as of February 2022.
– German Environment Agency awarded funds for promoting the biocyclic vegan standard.
– 19 farms in the UK and Ireland certified vegan organic by the Stockfree Organic label.
– Certification by the Soil Association with requirements set by the Vegan Organic Network.

**3. Historical Background and Health Benefits of Vegetarianism:**
Vegetarianism dates back to ancient Greece and India, gaining popularity in the 20th century.
– Pythagoras credited as an early proponent of vegetarianism.
– Health benefits include lower risks of heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes.
– Vegetarian diets rich in fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants.
– Studies show vegetarians tend to have lower BMI and reduced risk of obesity.
Vegetarianism can help maintain healthy cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and may contribute to a longer lifespan.

**4. Environmental Impact and Ethical Considerations of Vegetarianism:**
– Livestock farming major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation.
– Adopting a vegetarian diet can reduce water usage, land degradation, and carbon footprint.
– Decreasing meat consumption helps mitigate climate change and preserve biodiversity.
– Many vegetarians choose the lifestyle to avoid contributing to animal suffering and exploitation.
– Ethical vegetarians advocate for humane treatment of animals and animal rights.
Speciesism and extending ethical principles to clothing and cosmetics discussed.

**5. Culinary Diversity and Innovation in Vegetarianism:**
Vegetarian cuisine offers a wide range of dishes from various cultures.
– Ingredients like tofu, legumes, grains, and vegetables are staples in vegetarian cooking.
– Vegan chefs and cookbook authors popularize creative plant-based recipes.
– Plant-based alternatives to meat and dairy products widely available.
Vegetarianism inspires innovative culinary techniques and flavor combinations in modern gastronomy.

Vegan organic (or veganic) agriculture is the organic production of food and other crops with minimal animal inputs. Vegan organic agriculture is the organic form of animal-free agriculture.

Animal-free farming methods use no animal products or by-products, such as bloodmeal, fish products, bone meal, feces, or other animal-origin matter because the production of these materials is viewed as either harming animals directly, or as associated with the exploitation and consequent suffering of animals. Some of these materials are by-products of animal husbandry, created during the process of cultivating animals for the production of meat, milk, skins, furs, entertainment, labor, or companionship. The sale of such by-products decreases expenses and increases profit for those engaged in animal husbandry and therefore helps support the animal husbandry industry, an outcome most vegans find unacceptable.

Vegan organic farming is much less common than organic farming. In 2019, there were 63 self-declared vegan organic farms in the United States, and 16,585 certified organic farms.

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