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**Etymology and Description**:
– The word ‘clove’ originated in the 15th century from Middle English, Anglo-French, and Old French, deriving from the Latin word ‘clavus’ meaning nail.
– The related term ‘gillyflower’ initially referred to cloves, originating from Old French and Latin.
– The clove tree is an evergreen that grows up to 8–12 meters tall with large leaves and crimson flowers in terminal clusters.
Clove flower buds transition from pale to green and then bright red when ready for harvest, typically at 1.5–2 centimeters long.
Clove stalks are slender stems with opposite decussate branching.

**Culinary and Non-Culinary Uses**:
– Cloves are prevalent in Asian, African, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern cuisines, flavoring meats, curries, marinades, and fruits like apples and pears.
– They are common in spice blends like pumpkin pie spice and pair well with cinnamon, allspice, and vanilla.
– In non-culinary uses, cloves enhance aroma in betel quids, kretek cigarettes, wood preservation, and fragrant pomanders.
Clove essential oil inhibits mold growth on foods and is used in various products such as clove cigarettes.

**Medicinal Uses and Phytochemicals**:
Clove oil is known for its analgesic properties, particularly in dental emergencies and toothache pain.
– It is effective against Enterococcus faecalis bacteria and contains phytochemicals like eugenol, acetyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, vanillin, and tannins.
– Eugenol, constituting 72–90% of clove essential oil, is responsible for the characteristic aroma of cloves.
– Extraction methods like pressurized hot water, ultrasound-assisted, and microwave-assisted techniques are used to extract phytochemicals efficiently.

**Research and Studies**:
– Research has shown that cinnamon and clove essential oils inhibit mold growth on baked foods and are evaluated for antifungal wood protection.
– Studies on clove’s efficacy in dry socket management, against Enterococcus faecalis, and in various applications are ongoing.
– Various research articles, journals, and authors explore the nutraceutical perspectives and extraction techniques related to clove phytochemicals.

**References and Publication Information**:
– References to sources like the Germplasm Resources Information Network, Oxford English Dictionary, and additional sources like Kew Science,, and Tridge provide further information on clove.
– Publication information includes research papers, scientific journals, authors, and toxicology evaluations related to clove and its components.

Clove (Wikipedia)

Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum (/sɪˈzɪəm ˌærəˈmætɪkəm/). They are native to the Maluku Islands, or Moluccas, in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice, flavoring, or fragrance in consumer products, such as toothpaste, soaps, or cosmetics. Cloves are available throughout the year owing to different harvest seasons across various countries.

Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Syzygium
S. aromaticum
Binomial name
Syzygium aromaticum
  • Caryophyllus aromaticus L.
  • Eugenia aromatica (L.) Baill.
  • Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.
  • Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S.G.Harrison
  • Jambosa caryophyllus (Thunb.) Nied.
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