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**Etymology and History of Cinnamon:**
– English word ‘cinnamon’ from Ancient Greek κιννάμωμον
– Name ‘cassia’ derived from Hebrew word קציעה
– Early Modern English names ‘canel’ and ‘canella’
Cinnamon known since remote antiquity
– Highly prized among ancient nations
– Source kept a trade secret in the Mediterranean world
– Cinnamomum verum native to India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar
Cinnamon used in Ancient Egypt for embalming mummies
– Europeans learned about cinnamon through Latin writers quoting Herodotus
– Venetian traders held a monopoly on cinnamon trade in Europe
– Ferdinand Magellan found cinnamon in the Philippines in the 1500s
– Dutch traders established control over cinnamon in Sri Lanka in the 1600s

**Cultivation and Species of Cinnamon:**
Cinnamon comes from evergreen trees
– Oval-shaped leaves characterize cinnamon trees
Cinnamon trees produce aromatic flowers
– Wild cinnamon trees exist
Cinnamon cultivation in Sri Lanka, India, China, and other warm climate countries
– Species include Cinnamomum cassia, C. burmanni, C. loureiroi, C. verum, C. citriodorum
– Grading categories: Alba, Continental, Mexican, Hamburg, Quillings

**Counterfeit Cinnamon and Food Uses:**
– Authentic Ceylon cinnamon may be mixed with cassia as counterfeit
– Market samples showed high coumarin levels, indicating probable contamination
– Used in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material
– Employed in chocolate preparation, especially in Mexico
– Commonly used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb
– Flavors cereals, bread-based dishes, fruits, and beverages like eggnog
– Essential in Persian and Malay cuisine for enhancing flavor

**Nutrient Composition and Health-Related Research:**
– Ground cinnamon composition: 11% water, 81% carbohydrates, 4% protein, 1% fat
– Rich in dietary fiber, calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium
– Contains vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, C, E, K
– Varied effects of cinnamon on fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c
– Mixed results on cholesterol and triglycerides in studies
– Adverse events from cinnamon use include gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions

**Toxicity, Gallery, and Additional Information:**
– Coumarin in cinnamon can cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations
– Authentic Ceylon cinnamon may be mixed with cassia as counterfeit
– Cinnamon-flavored tea, toast, and candies are popular choices
– Historical significance of cinnamon in spice trade routes and scientific research
– Health benefits, risks, regulatory aspects, and culinary/cultural significance of cinnamon

Cinnamon (Wikipedia)

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snack foods, bagels, teas, hot chocolate and traditional foods. The aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents including eugenol.

Dried bark strips, bark powder and flowers of the small tree Cinnamomum verum
Cinnamomum verum, from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887)
Close-up view of raw cinnamon bark

Cinnamon is the name for several species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. Cinnamomum verum (alternatively C. zeylanicum), known as "Ceylon cinnamon" after its origins in Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), is considered to be "true cinnamon", but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from four other species, usually and more correctly referred to as "cassia": C. burmanni (Indonesian cinnamon or Padang cassia), C. cassia (Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi (Saigon cinnamon or Vietnamese cassia), and the less common C. citriodorum (Malabar cinnamon).

In 2021, world production of cinnamon was 226,753 tonnes, led by China with 43% of the total.

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