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Mortality rate

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**1. Mortality Rate and Measurement:**
Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths in a population scaled to its size over a specific time period.
– Typically expressed as deaths per 1,000 individuals per year.
– The global crude death rate was estimated at 7.7 per 1,000 people in 2020.
– Calculated using a formula involving deaths, population size, and a conversion factor.
– A decrease in mortality rate contributes to population growth.
– The U.S. crude death rate was estimated at 8.3 per 1,000 in 2020.

**2. Types of Mortality Measurement:**
– Crude Death Rate: Mortality rate from all causes of death for a population.
– Child mortality rate decreased from 144 per thousand in 1990 to 38 per thousand in 2015.
– Related measures include perinatal mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, standardized mortality ratio, and cause-specific death rate.

**3. Epidemiology and Mortality Prediction:**
– Epidemiologists use mortality rate estimation to predict rates due to various challenges.
– Challenges include maternal mortality estimation difficulties and factors like language barriers, health infrastructure issues, and conflicts.
– Mortality prediction relies on vital statistics and census data, which may be lacking in developing countries and crisis-affected areas.

**4. Factors Affecting Mortality:**
– Low standard of living due to low income is associated with increased mortality rates.
– Malnutrition, lack of hygiene, sanitation, and access to medical care contribute to higher mortality rates.
– Short-term price increases historically linked to higher mortality rates.
– Mortality rates can indicate economic success and failure.

**5. Preventable Mortality and Methods of Estimation:**
– Children under 5 in lower-income countries face higher mortality rates from preventable diseases.
– Major preventable causes of death include malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhea, perinatal conditions, and measles in developing nations.
– Preventable mortality rates are more pronounced in lower-income countries.
– The sisterhood method, orphanhood surveys, and widowhood surveys are used for estimating mortality, particularly maternal mortality.

Mortality rate (Wikipedia)

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 (out of 1,000) in a population of 1,000 would mean 9.5 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total. It is distinct from "morbidity", which is either the prevalence or incidence of a disease, and also from the incidence rate (the number of newly appearing cases of the disease per unit of time).[verification needed]

Mortality rate of countries, deaths per thousand

An important specific mortality rate measure is the crude death rate, which looks at mortality from all causes in a given time interval for a given population. As of 2020, for instance, the CIA estimates that the crude death rate globally will be 7.7 deaths per 1,000 people in a population per year. In a generic form, mortality rates can be seen as calculated using , where d represents the deaths from whatever cause of interest is specified that occur within a given time period, p represents the size of the population in which the deaths occur (however this population is defined or limited), and is the conversion factor from the resulting fraction to another unit (e.g., multiplying by to get mortality rate per 1,000 individuals).

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