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**Geography and Climate**:
Oklahoma is a landlocked state in the South Central U.S.
– It covers an area of 69,895 square miles and is the 20th-largest state in the U.S.
– The state lies between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau, featuring diverse landscapes like mountain ranges, prairies, mesas, and forests.
Oklahoma’s climate is a blend of humid subtropical, humid continental, and semi-arid climates.
– The region experiences severe weather due to its location in Tornado Alley, with tornadoes, hail, and thunderstorms being common occurrences.
– The climate transitions from moist in the east to semi-arid in the west, leading to extreme temperature ranges and varied precipitation patterns.

**History and Indigenous Peoples**:
– Indigenous peoples have inhabited present-day Oklahoma since the last ice age, with various tribes like Wichita, Caddo, and Tonkawa residing in different regions.
– European explorers and settlers claimed the area in the 16th to 18th centuries.
– Forced removal of Native Americans to Oklahoma occurred in the 19th century, leading to land runs and the Dawes Act of 1887.
Oklahoma was envisioned as a territory controlled by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs.
– The state has historical significance due to its past as a territory for relocated American Indians and a destination for Southern settlers.

**Economy and Industries**:
Oklahoma is a major producer of natural gas, oil, and agricultural products.
– The state’s economy relies on industries like aviation, energy, telecommunications, and biotechnology.
Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as the primary economic centers, with two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas.
– The state’s economy is diverse and contributes significantly to the national economy.
Oklahoma’s economic growth and development have been driven by its key industries and strategic location within the U.S.

**Cultural Diversity and African-American History**:
Oklahoma is a confluence of three major American cultural regions and is known for its cultural diversity.
– Currently, 26 Native American languages are spoken in the state, reflecting its rich heritage.
Oklahoma has a significant percentage of American Indian population and a history of Black towns founded by Freedmen of the Five Tribes.
– The Greenwood district of Tulsa was prosperous in the early 20th century before the Tulsa race massacre of 1921.
– African-American history in Oklahoma includes significant events like the encouragement of Black settlers by Edward P. McCabe and the decline of the Ku Klux Klan’s influence by the late 1920s.

**Population Growth and Urban Centers**:
Oklahoma’s population has shown consistent growth, reaching over 4 million in a 2022 estimate.
– The state experienced a 5.5% population increase from 2010 to 2020, with immigrants making up 6% of the population in 2018.
– Leading cities like Oklahoma City and Tulsa have seen significant population growth, with over 65% of Oklahomans living in their metropolitan areas.
– Municipalities in Oklahoma are divided into cities and towns, each with its own form of government.
– The state’s urban centers play a crucial role in driving economic growth and cultural diversity.

Oklahoma (Wikipedia)

Oklahoma (/ˌkləˈhmə/ OHK-lə-HOH-mə; Choctaw: Oklahumma, pronounced [oklahómma]; Cherokee: ᎣᎧᎳᎰᎹ, Okalahoma, pronounced [ògàlàhǒːmã́]) is a landlocked state in the South Central region of the United States. It borders Texas to the south and west, Kansas to the north, Missouri to the northeast, Arkansas to the east, New Mexico to the west, and Colorado to the northwest. Partially in the western extreme of the Upland South, it is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. Its residents are known as Oklahomans and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla, 'people' and humma, which translates as 'red'. Oklahoma is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the Sooners, settlers who staked their claims in formerly American Indian-owned lands until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 authorized the Land Rush of 1889 opening the land to white settlement.

Oklahumma (Choctaw)
ᎣᎧᎳᎰᎹ (Cherokee)
State of Oklahoma
  • Native America (official)
  • Land of the Red Man
  • Sooner State
Labor omnia vincit
(English: Work conquers all)
Anthem: "Oklahoma" and
"Oklahoma Hills"
Map of the United States with Oklahoma highlighted
Map of the United States with Oklahoma highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehood
Admitted to the UnionNovember 16, 1907; 116 years ago (1907-11-16) (46th)
(and largest city)
Oklahoma City
Largest county or equivalentOklahoma
Largest metro and urban areasGreater Oklahoma City
 • GovernorKevin Stitt (R)
 • Lieutenant GovernorMatt Pinnell (R)
LegislatureOklahoma Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryOklahoma Supreme Court (civil)
Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals (criminal)
U.S. senators
U.S. House delegation5 Republicans (list)
 • Total69,898 sq mi (181,038 km2)
 • Land68,595 sq mi (177,660 km2)
 • Water1,304 sq mi (3,377 km2)  1.9%
 • Rank20th
 • Length468 mi (756 km)
 • Width230 mi (370 km)
1,300 ft (400 m)
Highest elevation4,975 ft (1,516 m)
Lowest elevation
(Little River at Arkansas border)
289 ft (88 m)
 • Total4,053,824
 • Rank28th
 • Density55.20/sq mi (21.30/km2)
  • Rank35th
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
Okie (colloq., historically derogatory);
Sooner (historically)
 • Official languageEnglish, Choctaw, Cherokee
Time zones
entire state (legally)UTC−06:00 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−05:00 (CDT)
Kenton (informally)UTC−07:00 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-OK
Traditional abbreviationOkla.
Latitude33°37' N to 37° N
Longitude94° 26' W to 103° W

With ancient mountain ranges, prairie, mesas, and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, and the U.S. Interior Highlands, all regions prone to severe weather. Oklahoma is at a confluence of three major American cultural regions. Historically, it served as a government-sanctioned territory for American Indians moved from east of the Mississippi River, a route for cattle drives from Texas and related regions, and a destination for Southern settlers. There are currently 26 Native American languages spoken in Oklahoma. According to the 2020 U.S. census, 14.2 percent of Oklahomans identify as American Indians, the highest indigenous population by percentage in any state.

A major producer of natural gas, oil, and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, energy, telecommunications, and biotechnology. Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas.

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