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**1. Botanical Aspects of Quinoa:**
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a dicotyledonous annual plant.
– The central stem can be green, red, or purple.
– The flowers are small, incomplete, and come in various colors.
– The seeds are about 2mm in diameter.
Quinoa has developed resistance to salinity.

**2. Nutritional Value and Cultivation of Quinoa:**
– Raw quinoa is rich in protein, fiber, and B vitamins.
– A 100g serving of raw quinoa seeds provides 1,539kJ (368kcal) of energy.
– Cooked quinoa remains a good source of dietary minerals.
Quinoa is gluten-free.
Quinoa is primarily grown for its edible seeds and is cultivated in over 70 countries.

**3. Cultivation Techniques and Challenges:**
Quinoa cultivation spans from coastal regions to high altitudes in the Andes.
– Optimal growth conditions include cool climates and temperatures ranging from -4°C to 35°C.
Quinoa thrives in well-drained, nutrient-poor soils with moderate salinity.
– Proper soil preparation and drainage are crucial.
– Genetic breeding aims to reduce saponin content and enhance crop yield.

**4. Cultural and Social Impact of Quinoa:**
– The United Nations declared 2013 as the International Year of Quinoa.
Quinoa plays a role in food security, nutrition, and poverty eradication.
– Concerns have been raised about ecological and social drawbacks in native regions.
Quinoa is used in various global dishes and as a substitute during Passover.
– Efforts are being made to ensure access to quinoa for farming and poorer populations.

**5. Economic and Global Impact of Quinoa:**
Quinoa crop prices tripled between 2006 and 2014 due to increased popularity.
Quinoa production has brought economic benefits to Andean regions.
– The global demand for quinoa is partly attributed to rising veganism.
Quinoa trade has globalized, impacting markets and prices.
– The quinoa industry has created economic opportunities for farmers and indigenous populations.

Quinoa (Wikipedia)

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa; /ˈkn.wɑː, kiˈn.ə/, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a crop primarily for its edible seeds; the seeds are rich in protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins and dietary minerals in amounts greater than in many grains. Quinoa is not a grass but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), and originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America. It was first used to feed livestock 5,200–7,000 years ago, and for human consumption 3,000–4,000 years ago in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia.

Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Genus: Chenopodium
C. quinoa
Binomial name
Chenopodium quinoa
Natural distribution in red, Cultivation in green

The plant thrives at high elevations and produces seeds that are rich in protein. Almost all production in the Andean region is done by small farms and associations. Its cultivation has spread to more than 70 countries, including Kenya, India, the United States and European countries. As a result of increased popularity and consumption in North America, Europe, and Australasia, quinoa crop prices tripled between 2006 and 2014.

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