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**Botanical Description and Cultivation**:
Jackfruit tree grows in tropical lowlands, reaching heights of 9 to 21m with a short trunk and dense treetop.
– Leaves are gummy, thick, and divided into petiole and leaf blade, with alternate, spirally arranged, and gummy characteristics.
– Inflorescences are pedunculated, and the fruit is ellipsoidal to roundish, formed from multiple flowers.
– Cultivation involves minimal pruning, occasional cutting of dead branches, and manipulation of fruit-bearing twigs for growth.
– Pruning branches every few years and removing mediocre fruits are essential practices for productivity.
– Stingless bees play a crucial role as pollinators in jackfruit cultivation.

**Culinary Uses and Aroma**:
– Ripe jackfruit has flavors of apple, pineapple, mango, and banana, with varieties ranging from hard to soft.
– Unripe jackfruit is used in curry dishes as a meat substitute due to its mild flavor and meat-like texture.
Jackfruit is utilized in salads, curries, side dishes, and as fillings for various dishes.
– Young jackfruit can be boiled and used in curries as a meat substitute.
Jackfruit emits a sweet and fruity aroma due to volatile compounds like ethyl isovalerate, propyl isovalerate, and butyl isovalerate.
– Fully ripe jackfruit has a strong aroma similar to pineapple and banana, with roasted seeds providing a chocolate aroma alternative.

**Nutritional Value and Health Benefits**:
– Uncooked jackfruit provides 95kcal energy per 100g and is rich in carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and vitamins B1, B2, B6, and C.
– It is a good source of minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and potassium, with 74% water content in the pulp.
Jackfruit is considered a superfood and meat alternative, with potential health benefits for disease prevention.
– Analysis of volatile compounds in jackfruit suggests additional health benefits beyond basic nutrition.
– Studies highlight the nutritional value and dietary benefits of incorporating jackfruit into a balanced diet.

**Cultural Significance and Economic Importance**:
Jackfruit has cultural significance as the national fruit of Bangladesh and the state fruit of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
– Used in various traditional dishes worldwide, it is celebrated for its versatility and nutritional value.
Jackfruit holds economic importance as a valuable crop, with global leaders in production and a rise in demand and commercial value.
– The wood of the jackfruit tree is used in Hindu ceremonies in Kerala and for Buddhist statues in Vietnam.
Jackfruit wood is also utilized in furniture, construction, musical instruments, and traditional ceremonies, contributing to its economic significance.

**Production, Marketing, and Commercial Availability**:
– India produced 1.4 million tonnes of jackfruit in 2017, with complex marketing channels involving producers, traders, and retailers.
– Different marketing strategies cater to large and medium-sized farms, with jackfruit processed into various products for export.
– Fresh, canned, frozen, and processed jackfruit products are commercially available, with dried jackfruit chips also produced.
– Increasing availability in US grocery stores and widespread use in restaurant menus for vegan dishes showcase the commercial viability of jackfruit.
Jackfruit’s commercial availability, diverse product range, and marketing strategies contribute to its global presence and consumption patterns.

Jackfruit (Wikipedia)

The jackfruit is the fruit of jack tree Artocarpus heterophyllus, a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae). The jackfruit is the largest tree fruit, reaching as much as 55 kg (120 pounds) in weight, 90 cm (35 inches) in length, and 50 cm (20 inches) in diameter. A mature jackfruit tree produces some 200 fruits per year, with older trees bearing up to 500 fruits in a year. The jackfruit is a multiple fruit composed of hundreds to thousands of individual flowers, and the fleshy petals of the unripe fruit are eaten.

Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Genus: Artocarpus
A. heterophyllus
Binomial name
Artocarpus heterophyllus
  • Artocarpus brasiliensis Ortega
  • Artocarpus maximus Blanco
  • Artocarpus nanca Noronha (nom inval.)
  • Artocarpus philippensis Lam.

The jackfruit tree is well-suited to tropical lowlands and is widely cultivated throughout tropical regions of the world, including India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and the rainforests of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia.

The ripe fruit is sweet (depending on variety) and is commonly used in desserts. Canned green jackfruit has a mild taste and meat-like texture that lends itself to being called "vegetable meat". Jackfruit is commonly used in South and Southeast Asian cuisines. Both ripe and unripe fruits are consumed. It is available internationally, canned or frozen, and in chilled meals, as are various products derived from the fruit, such as noodles and chips.

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